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Every Monday morning at 9:30 am Paris time, we are discussing exciting new science from last week with colleagues, students and everyone interested in the brain.


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ID: 895 8114 6322, Code: CNS


Previous events are available OnDemand on YouTube:  www.youtube.com/c/ClinicalNeuroanatomySeminars

Neuroccino 28th November 2022 - The neurons that restore walking after paralysis
32:44
Clinical Neuroanatomy Seminars

Neuroccino 28th November 2022 - The neurons that restore walking after paralysis

The neurons that restore walking after paralysis A spinal cord injury interrupts pathways from the brain and brainstem that project to the lumbar spinal cord, leading to paralysis. Here we show that spatiotemporal epidural electrical stimulation (EES) of the lumbar spinal cord1,2,3 applied during neurorehabilitation4,5 (EESREHAB) restored walking in nine individuals with chronic spinal cord injury. This recovery involved a reduction in neuronal activity in the lumbar spinal cord of humans during walking. We hypothesized that this unexpected reduction reflects activity-dependent selection of specific neuronal subpopulations that become essential for a patient to walk after spinal cord injury. To identify these putative neurons, we modelled the technological and therapeutic features underlying EESREHAB in mice. We applied single-nucleus RNA sequencing6,7,8,9 and spatial transcriptomics10,11 to the spinal cords of these mice to chart a spatially resolved molecular atlas of recovery from paralysis. We then employed cell type12,13 and spatial prioritization to identify the neurons involved in the recovery of walking. A single population of excitatory interneurons nested within intermediate laminae emerged. Although these neurons are not required for walking before spinal cord injury, we demonstrate that they are essential for the recovery of walking with EES following spinal cord injury. Augmenting the activity of these neurons phenocopied the recovery of walking enabled by EESREHAB, whereas ablating them prevented the recovery of walking that occurs spontaneously after moderate spinal cord injury. We thus identified a recovery-organizing neuronal subpopulation that is necessary and sufficient to regain walking after paralysis. Moreover, our methodology establishes a framework for using molecular cartography to identify the neurons that produce complex behaviours. Paper link: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-022-05385-7
Neuroccino 14th Nov 2022 - networks of the gut microbiota are associated  in psychiatric inpatients
27:56
Clinical Neuroanatomy Seminars

Neuroccino 14th Nov 2022 - networks of the gut microbiota are associated in psychiatric inpatients

Paper link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36122838/ Background: Comorbid anxiety and depression are common and are associated with greater disease burden than either alone. Our recent efforts have identified an association between gut microbiota dysfunction and severity of anxiety and depression. In this follow-up, we applied Differential Co-Expression Analysis (DiffCoEx) to identify potential gut microbiota biomarker(s) candidates of treatment resistance among psychiatric inpatients. Methods: In a sample of convenience, 100 psychiatric inpatients provided clinical data at admission and discharge; fecal samples were collected early during the hospitalization. Whole genome shotgun sequencing methods were used to process samples. DiffCoEx was used to identify clusters of microbial features significantly different based on treatment resistance status. Once overlapping features were identified, a knowledge-mining tool was used to review the literature using a list of microbial species/pathways and a select number of medical subject headlines (MeSH) terms relevant for depression, anxiety, and brain-gut-axis dysregulation. Network analysis used overlapping features to identify microbial interactions that could impact treatment resistance. Results: DiffCoEx analyzed 10,403 bacterial features: 43/44 microbial features associated with depression treatment resistance overlapped with 43/114 microbial features associated with anxiety treatment resistance. Network analysis resulted in 8 biological interactions between 16 bacterial species. Clostridium perfringens evidenced the highest connection strength (0.95). Erysipelotrichaceae bacterium 6_1_45 has been most widely examined, is associated with inflammation and dysbiosis, but has not been associated with depression or anxiety. Conclusion: DiffCoEx potentially identified gut bacteria biomarker candidates of depression and anxiety treatment-resistance. Future efforts in psychiatric microbiology should examine the mechanistic relationship of identified pro-inflammatory species, potentially contributing to a biomarker-based algorithm for treatment resistance.
Neuroccino 7th Nov - A mind-body interface alternates with effector-specific regions in motor cortex
32:22
Clinical Neuroanatomy Seminars

Neuroccino 7th Nov - A mind-body interface alternates with effector-specific regions in motor cortex

Primary motor cortex (M1) has been thought to form a continuous somatotopic homunculus extending down precentral gyrus from foot to face representations1,2. The motor homunculus has remained a textbook pillar of functional neuroanatomy, despite evidence for concentric functional zones3 and maps of complex actions4. Using our highest precision functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data and methods, we discovered that the classic homunculus is interrupted by regions with sharpy distinct connectivity, structure, and function, alternating with effector-specific (foot, hand, mouth) areas. These inter-effector regions exhibit decreased cortical thickness and strong functional connectivity to each other, and to prefrontal, insular, and subcortical regions of the Cingulo-opercular network (CON), critical for executive action5 and physiological control6, arousal7, and processing of errors8 and pain9. This interdigitation of action control-linked and motor effector regions was independently verified in the three largest fMRI datasets. Macaque and pediatric (newborn, infant, child) precision fMRI revealed potential cross-species analogues and developmental precursors of the inter-effector system. An extensive battery of motor and action fMRI tasks documented concentric somatotopies for each effector, separated by the CON-linked inter-effector regions. The inter-effector regions lacked movement specificity and co-activated during action planning (coordination of hands and feet), and axial body movement (e.g., abdomen, eyebrows). These results, together with prior work demonstrating stimulation-evoked complex actions4 and connectivity to internal organs (e.g., adrenal medulla)10, suggest that M1 is punctuated by an integrative system for implementing whole-body action plans. Thus, two parallel systems intertwine in motor cortex to form an integrate-isolate pattern: effector-specific regions (foot, hand, mouth) for isolating fine motor control, and a mind-body interface (MBI) for the integrative whole-organism coordination of goals, physiology, and body movement. Paper link: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2022.10.26.513940v1.full Catani Brain 2017 mentioned in the discussion: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5841206/
Neuroccino 10th October 2022 - NEUROMAPS: structural and functional interpretation of brain maps
37:22
Clinical Neuroanatomy Seminars

Neuroccino 10th October 2022 - NEUROMAPS: structural and functional interpretation of brain maps

Paper link: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41592-022-01625-w neuromaps: structural and functional interpretation of brain maps Imaging technologies are increasingly used to generate high-resolution reference maps of brain structure and function. Comparing experimentally generated maps to these reference maps facilitates cross-disciplinary scientific discovery. Although recent data sharing initiatives increase the accessibility of brain maps, data are often shared in disparate coordinate systems, precluding systematic and accurate comparisons. Here we introduce neuromaps, a toolbox for accessing, transforming and analyzing structural and functional brain annotations. We implement functionalities for generating high-quality transformations between four standard coordinate systems. The toolbox includes curated reference maps and biological ontologies of the human brain, such as molecular, microstructural, electrophysiological, developmental and functional ontologies. Robust quantitative assessment of map-to-map similarity is enabled via a suite of spatial autocorrelation-preserving null models. neuromaps combines open-access data with transparent functionality for standardizing and comparing brain maps, providing a systematic workflow for comprehensive structural and functional annotation enrichment analysis of the human brain. #structure #function #MRI #brainmapping #neuroimaging
Neuroccino 3rd October 2022 - Agnosias & neglect
31:47
Clinical Neuroanatomy Seminars

Neuroccino 3rd October 2022 - Agnosias & neglect

The Ties that Bind: Agnosia, Neglect and Selective Attention to Visual Scale Purpose of review: Historical and contemporary treatments of visual agnosia and neglect regard these disorders as largely unrelated. It is thought that damage to different neural processes leads directly to one or the other condition, yet apperceptive variants of agnosia and object-centered variants of neglect share remarkably similar deficits in the quality of conscious experience. Here we argue for a closer association between "apperceptive" variants of visual agnosia and "object-centered" variants of visual neglect. We introduce a theoretical framework for understanding these conditions based on "scale attention", which refers to selecting boundary and surface information at different levels of the structural hierarchy in the visual array. Recent findings: We review work on visual agnosia, the cortical structures and cortico-cortical pathways that underlie visual perception, visuospatial neglect and object-centered neglect, and attention to scale. We highlight direct and indirect pathways involved in these disorders and in attention to scale. The direct pathway involves the posterior vertical segments of the superior longitudinal fasciculus that are positioned to link the established dorsal and ventral attentional centers in the parietal cortex with structures in the inferior occipitotemporal cortex associated with visual apperceptive agnosia. The connections in the right hemisphere appear to be more important for visual conscious experience, whereas those in the left hemisphere appear to be more strongly associated with the planning and execution of visually guided grasps directed at multi-part objects such as tools. In the latter case, semantic and functional information must drive the selection of the appropriate hand posture and grasp points on the object. This view is supported by studies of grasping in patients with agnosia and in patients with neglect that show that the selection of grasp points when picking up a tool involves both scale attention and semantic contributions from inferotemporal cortex. The indirect pathways, which include the inferior fronto-occipital and horizontal components of the superior longitudinal fasciculi, involve the frontal lobe, working memory and the "multiple demands" network, which can shape the content of visual awareness through the maintenance of goal- and task-based abstractions and their influence on scale attention. Recent studies of human cortico-cortical pathways necessitate revisions to long-standing theoretical views on visual perception, visually guided action and their integrations. We highlight findings from a broad sample of seemingly disparate areas of research to support the proposal that attention to scale is necessary for typical conscious visual experience and for goal-directed actions that depend on functional and semantic information. Furthermore, we suggest that vertical pathways between the parietal and occipitotemporal cortex, along with indirect pathways that involve the premotor and prefrontal cortex, facilitate the operations of scale attention. Paper link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34586544/